Talk of the Trade

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AAC: Actual acquisition cost
AACP: American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
AAHP: American Association of Health Plans
AAPPO: American Association of Preferred Provider Organizations
AAPS: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
ACA: American College of Apothecaries
Accounts Receivable: Money owed to a distributor or manufacturer for products delivered to a customer on credit
Acknowledgement: In the global data synchronization process, this is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) response to a command returned to the originator. Every command needs a response. Acknowledgement messages are standardized and may contain the following information: confirmation of message receipt, success/failure of processing for syntax and content or reason code for each type of failure. (Source: GS1 US)
ACPE: American Council on Pharmaceutical Education
Active Tag: A class of RFID tag that contains a power source, such as a battery, to power the microchip’s circuitry. Active tags transmit a signal to a reader and can be read from 100 feet (35 meters) or more (Source: GS1 US)
Activity Diagram: A representation of relationships of activities that have a clear input and a clear output (Source: GS1 US)
ADA: American Dental Association
Add-On Symbol: A bar code symbol used to encode information supplementary to that in the main EAN/UPC bar code symbol (Source: GS1 US)
Advertising Allowance: Cash paid by the manufacturer to the distributor to promote products via co-op ads or other published materials
AFEHCT: Association for Electronic Healthcare Transactions
AFI: Application Family Identifier - An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for classifying Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) by application. This method enables a single air interface protocol to be used across multiple applications, such as supply chain and identity cases (Source: GS1 US)
AFPE: American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education
AGPA: American Group Practice Association
AHA: American Hospital Association
AI: Application identifier - Two or more digits that precede an EAN.UCC system data structure to uniquely define its format and meaning when encoded in a data carrier (Source: GS1 US)
AIDC: Automatic identification and data capture - Technology associated with the creation and acquisition of machine-readable data. The primary technologies are bar codes and RFID (Source: GS1 US)
AIHP: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy
Air Interface: The radio frequency link between a reader and RFID tags (Source: GS1 US)
ALE: Application level event - A first-level business event identified in EPC Middleware that is derived from individual read events (Source: GS1 US)
ALEC: American Legislative Exchange Council
Allocation Order: An order filled at the previous price after a price increase; usually limited to a one or two month supply
Allotment: The amount of product a manufacturer allows a distributor to purchase at the old price after a price increase
Allowance: A temporary price reduction or performance incentive paid
AMA: American Medical Association
AMCP: Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy
ANDA: Abbreviated New Drug Application – An application containing data which when submitted to FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Generic Drugs, provides for the review and ultimate approval of a generic drug product. Once approved, an applicant may manufacture and market the generic drug product to the American public
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
Anticipation: An extra discount that a manufacturer gives a distributor for paying an invoice before receiving merchandise
Antenna: The conductive element that enables an RFID tag or tags to send and receive data (Source: GS1 US)
APhA: American Pharmacists Association
Architecture: The way components of a complex system fit together (Source: GS1 US)
As-Is Model: Representation of the current business process (Source: GS1 US)
ASAP: American Society for Automation in Pharmacy
ASCP: American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
ASCX12: Accredited Standards Committee X12
ASHP: American Society of Health Systems Pharmacists
ASN: Advance ship notice - The Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) transaction that provides the receiving company with advance data on shipments to better plan workloads and receipt processing. In the implementation of the transaction, the latest the ship notice may be sent is at the time of shipment. In practice, the ship notice must arrive before the shipment (Source: GS1 US)
ASP: Application Service Provider - Third-party software distribution and/or management service. Generally provides software via a wide area network from a centralized data center. Allows companies to outsource and more efficiently upgrade software (Source: GS1 US)
Attribute: (1) A piece of information reflecting a characteristic related to an identification number [e.g., an expiration date with a Global Trade Item Number® (GTIN®)]. (2) A specification, feature or characteristic that describes the physical, compositional or structural properties of a good or service (Source: GS1 US)
Authentication: A mechanism that allows the receiver of an electronic transmission to verify the sender and the integrity of the content of the transmission through the use of an electronic key or algorithm, which is shared by the trading partners. This is sometimes referred to as an electronic signature (Source: GS1 US)
Autodiscrimination: The capability of a reader to automatically recognize and decode multiple bar code symbologies (Source: GS1 US)
AWP: Any willing provider
AWP: Average Wholesale Price

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B2B: Business-to-business – Buying and selling between companies using electronic transactions
Background: The lighter portion of a bar code symbol, including the spaces between the bars and, where required, quiet zones (Source: GS1 US)
Backorder: Product the manufacturer cannot deliver by the requested date
Bar: The dark (low reflectance) rectangular element of a bar code symbol (Source: GS1 US)
Bar code: A symbol made of a precise arrangement of parallel lines (bars) and spaces that vary in width to represent data that is used in electronic scanning to identify a product or an order
Barcode Density: The number of symbol characters that can be represented in a specific unit of measure.
Bar Height: The dimension of a bar (line) measured from its top to its bottom (Source: GS1 US)
Batch EDI: The pre-scheduled transmission or receipt of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) data (Source: GS1 US)
Batch Load: Technique for uploading or downloading data. A batch can be scheduled to process at a specific time for a number of transactions (Source: GS1 US)
Bearer Bars: Bars surrounding a bar code symbol to prevent misreads or to improve print quality of the bar code symbol. Mandatory by EAN.UCC system standards for ITF-14 symbols
BHR: Bar height reduction
Bill over: the invoice for products shipping in one billing period, but billed in the next billing period
Billing Unit: An item that is priced and invoiced in trade between two parties at any point in the supply chain (Source: GS1 US)
BIO: Biotechnology Industry Organization
BOL: Bill of lading – A contract between the carrier and shipper that provides the details of the shipment movement
Bonus Pack: A trade item that has increased quantity, (e.g., net weight, count or volume) and is sold at the same price as the regular quantity item
BOP: Boards of Pharmacy
Brand: A specific product within a category, as indicated by an identifying mark or name. The brand name is the distinctive name of a product, the word part of a trademark or the name of the manufacturer (Source: GS1 US)
Brand Owner: Entity (party) owning, and in most cases manufacturing, the trade item responsible for (1) allocating EAN.UCC system numbering and bar code symbols on a given trade item as the administrator of an EAN.UCC Company Prefix (2) establishing the recognizable name (consumer recognizable) to uniquely identify a line of trade items or services (Source: GS1 US)
Bulk Shipments: Bulk quantity product put into inventory, but not broken down into smaller quantities before shipping
Business Process: A set of activities that represent all the alternative methods of performing the work needed to achieve a business objective (Source: GS1 US)
Buy Plan: An internal financial analysis model for a given piece of business

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CAM: Complimentary and alternative medicine - A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine
Carrier: (1) The party that provides freight transportation services. (2) A physical or electronic mechanism that carries data (Source: GS1 US)
Category: A classification assigned to an item that indicates the higher level grouping to which the item belongs. Items are put into logical groupings to facilitate the management of a diverse number of items (Source: GS1 US)
Category Management: A joint process between retailer and manufacturer where service and product categories are managed as strategic business units, producing enhanced business results by focusing on delivering consumer value. (Source: GS1 US)
Category Scheme: Structured grouping of category levels used to organize and assign products (Source: GS1 US)
CDC: Centers for Disease Control
CDER: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (FDA)
CDMA: Chain Drug Marketing Association, Inc.
Chain drug stores: Drug stores with four or more stores primarily in the business of retail sales.
CHAMPUS: Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
Chargeback: The amount a distributor bills back to a manufacturer when a product is sold to a customer at a contract price that is less than the distributor’s price
Choreography: The business transactions are sequenced relative to each other in a choreography. The business transaction choreography describes the ordering and transitions between business transactions, or sub collaborations within a binary collaboration (Source: GS1 US)
CHPA: Consumer Healthcare Products Association
Clusters: A group of high-level business processes
CMS: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Consignment Inventory: Inventory owned by the supplier to the point of final customer sale
COSH: Coalition on Occupational Safety & Health
Cost of Goods Sold: [Beginning inventory + purchases (net of trade discounts & returns, freight, value of inventory shrinkage and sales or use taxes) – ending inventory]
Collaborative Commerce: The processes, technologies and the supporting standards that allow continuous and automated exchange of information between trading partners.
Describes how businesses communicate with one another to drive down the cost of the supply chain (Source: GS1 US)
Compliance Testing: Testing done to judge a hardware or software product’s compliance to a particular standard. This is generally a pass/fail test, which also provides guidance if a product fails to comply (Source: GS1 US)
Componet Library: A reusable library of base component definitions. The component library can be reused and imported throughout all layers of the message set (Source: GS1 US)
Consignee: Party identified as the final recipient of freight/goods and the physical point of delivery, unless a ship-to party is identified (Source: GS1 US)
Consignor: The party by whom the goods, cargo or containers are sent. The physical dispatch can be done by another party (Synonym: shipper.) (Source: GS1 US)
Consumer Unit: The unit as sold by the retailer to the consumer (Source: GS1 US)
Content Owner: Entity (party) responsible for organizing the information enclosed within the Extensible Markup Language (XML) message and submission of message (Source: GS1 US)
CPI: Consumer price index
CPFR: Collaborative planning forecasting and replenishment – frequent replenishment of product based on actual and forecasted demand
CPRI: Computer-based Patient Records Institute, Inc.
CRM: Customer relationship marketing
CRO: Contract research organization
CSG: Council of State Governments
CTFA: The Cosmetic, Toiletry & Fragrance Association

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